Hypertension in common words is known as high blood pressure. In hypertension the long term force of the blood against patients artery walls is high enough ,that it may eventually causes health problems such as heart disease.
Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries ,the higher your blood pressure. Even without symptoms ,damage to blood vessels and heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems , including heart attack and stroke.
A person with hypertension may not notice any symptoms and so people often call it silent killer Without detection it can damage the heart , blood vessels and other organs such as kidneys.
In rare and severe cases ,high blood pressure causes sweating , anxiety , sleeping problems and blushing . However ,most people with hypertension experience no symptoms at all. In more severe cases ,the patient may experience headache and nasalbleeds.
• Primary Hypertension –
For most adults , there’s no identifiable cause of high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure called primary hypertension tends to develop gradually over many years.
• Secondary Hypertension –
Some people have high blood pressure caused by a medical condition. It tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than primary hypertension.
• Obstructive sleep apnoea
• Kidney problems
• Adrenal gland tumors
• Certain congenital defects in blood vessels
• Certain medications such as birth control pills ,cold remedies , decongestants ,over the counter pain relievers
• Illegal drugs such as cocaine
Risk Factors –
• Age – Risk of hypertension increases with age after 65 yrs
• Race – It is more common among African heritage people
• Family history
• Not physically active
• Using tobacco
• Drinking too much alcohol
• Too much salt (sodium) in your diet
• Too little potassium in your diet
• Certain medical conditions such as kidney disease , diabetes ,sleep apnoea
• Sometimes Pregnancy contribute to high blood pressure
• For some children high blood pressure is caused by problems with the kidneys or heart
• Heart attack or stroke
• Vision loss
• Kidney diseases
• Trouble with memory
• Metabolic syndromes like diabetes
High blood pressure is measured by BP measuring instrument which helps the doctor to diagnose whether you are hypertensive or not .
BP measurements comes into four general categories –
• Normal BP –
If BP is below 120/80 mm of Hg.
• Elevated BP –
When Systolic BP ranging from 120-129 mm of Hg and Diastolic BP below 80 mm of Hg.
• Stage 1 Hypertension –
When Systolic blood pressure ranging from 130-139mm of Hg and Diastolic ranging from 80-89 mm of Hg.
• Stage 2 Hypertension –
More severe hypertension ,when systolic blood pressure is 140 or higher and Diastolic blood pressure 90 mm of Hg or higher.
Lifestyle changes –
• Eating a heart healthy diet with less salt.
• Getting regular physical activity
• Maintaining a healthy weight
• Limiting the amount of alcohol
• Thiazide diuretics e.g.chlorthalidone ,hydrochlorothiazide
• Angiotensin- converting blockers ( ACE ) inhibitors such as captopril , Lisinopril etc.
• Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers ( ARBs ) e.g. losartan
• Calcium channel blockers like Amlodipine ,Dilitazem
• Alpha beta blockers like labetalol
• Beta blockers like Atenolol
Ayurveda perspective –
In Ayurveda Hypertension is called as Raktagat vata. It can be understood as prasarvastha of all the doshas along with rakta which circulate all over the body until they get lodged at a site of kha – vaigunya. This pathogenesis decides the organ of impact of the disease process whether towards brain ,heart , kidneys ,eyes Or blood vessels . Hypertension can be considered as psychosomatic haemodynamic condition where vata pradhan tridoshas are vitiated affecting the ras rakta dhatu as dooshyas with both sarva shareera (whole body ) and manas ( mind) as it’s adhishthana (site ).
Line of treatment –
• Shirodhara –
It is one of the panchkarma procedures and highly beneficial in Hypertension especially takra dhara 45 minutes daily for 15 days.
• Beneficial Herbs –
• Medications –
Sarpagandha ghan vati
• Pranayam –
Chandra nadishodhan is best for hypertension.
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