Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid produces and releases more hormones than you need. This is also called overactive thyroid.
The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck. It produces tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are two primary hormones that control how your cells use energy. Your thyroid gland regulates your metabolism through the release of these hormones. It is most likely to occur in individuals over 60 years.
The symptoms vary between individuals and can include –
• a goiter, a swelling in the neck due to an enlarged thyroid gland
• nervousness, irritability, mood swings, and reduced concentration
• a faster heartbeat, sometimes with palpitations
• sudden weight loss
• difficulty breathing
• fatigue and difficulty sleeping
• itchy skin with raised, itchy swellings, called hives or urticaria
• muscle weakness
• nails becoming loose
• menstrual problems, especially lighter periods or absence of periods
• oversensitivity to heat, excessive sweating, and warm, damp skin
• increased appetite
• increased bowel movements and urination
• infertility and a loss of interest in sex
• alopecia, or patchy hair loss
• redness on the palms of hands
• trembling hands and shakiness
A variety of conditions can cause hyperthyroidism. Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It causes antibodies to stimulate the thyroid to secrete too much hormone. Graves’ disease occurs more often in women than in men.
Other causes of hyperthyroidism include:
• excess iodine, a key ingredient in T4 and T3
• thyroiditis, or inflammation of the thyroid, which causes T4 and T3 to leak out of the gland
• tumors of the ovaries or testes
• benign tumors of the thyroid or pituitary gland
• large amounts of tetraiodothyronine taken through dietary supplements or medication
Risk Factors –
You’re at higher risk for hyperthyroidism if you:
• Have a family history of thyroid disease
• Have pernicious anemia (a vitamin B12 deficiency)
• Have type 1 diabetes
• Have primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison’s disease (a disorder where your adrenal glands don’t produce enough hormones, such as cortisol)
• Consume an iodine-rich diet or medications containing iodine (like amiodarone)
• Are over the age of 60
• Were pregnant within the past 6 months
• Had thyroid surgery or a thyroid problem such as a goiter, also known as a swollen thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism can lead to a number of complications:
• Heart problems.
Some of the most serious complications of hyperthyroidism involve the heart. These include a rapid heart rate, a heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation that increases your risk of stroke, and congestive heart failure.
• Brittle bones.
Untreated hyperthyroidism can also lead to weak, brittle bones (osteoporosis).
The strength of your bones depends, in part, on the amount of calcium and other minerals they contain. Too much thyroid hormone interferes with your body’s ability to incorporate calcium into your bones.
• Eye problems.
People with Graves’ ophthalmopathy develop eye problems, including bulging, red or swollen eyes, sensitivity to light, and blurring or double vision. Untreated, severe eye problems can lead to vision loss.
• Red, swollen skin.
In rare cases, people with Graves’ disease develop Graves’ dermopathy. This affects the skin, causing redness and swelling, often on the shins and feet.
• Thyrotoxic crisis.
Hyperthyroidism also places you at riBrittle bonesk of thyrotoxic crisis — a sudden intensification of your symptoms, leading to a fever, a rapid pulse and even delirium.
Your health care provider may use many tools to make a diagnosis:
• A medical history, including asking about symptoms
• A physical exam
• Thyroid tests, such as
▪︎TSH, T3, T4, and thyroid antibody blood tests
• Imaging tests, such as a thyroid scan, ultrasound, or radioactive iodine uptake test. A radioactive iodine uptake test measures how much radioactive iodine your thyroid takes up from your blood after you swallow a small amount of it.
The treatments for hyperthyroidism include –
• Antithyroid medicines, such as methimazole (Tapazole), which cause your thyroid to make less thyroid hormone. You probably need to take the medicines for 1 to 2 years.
However, if a person is pregnant, a doctor may recommend the drug propylthiouracil instead during their first trimester, as methimazole may have negative effects on the fetus. Pregnant people may switch to methimazole later in the pregnancy.
In some cases, you might need to take the medicines for several years. This is the simplest treatment, but it is often not a permanent cure.
• Beta blocker medicines, which can reduce symptoms such as tremors, rapid heartbeat, and nervousness. They work quickly and can help you feel better until other treatments take effect.
▪︎ Radioiodine therapy
It is a common and effective treatment for hyperthyroidism. It involves taking radioactive iodine by mouth as a capsule or liquid. This slowly destroys the cells of the thyroid gland that produce thyroid hormone. It does not affect other body tissues. Almost everyone who has radioactive iodine treatment later develops hypothyroidism. This is because the thyroid hormone-producing cells have been destroyed. But hypothyroidism is easier to treat and causes fewer long-term health problems than hyperthyroidism.
It is performed to remove part or most of the thyroid gland is done in rare cases. It might be an option for people with large goiters or pregnant women who cannot take antithyroid medicines. If you have all of your thyroid removed, you will need to take thyroid medicines for the rest of your life.
If you have hyperthyroidism, it’s important not to get too much iodine.
Ayurvedic Perspective –
The symptoms and precautionary measures recommended are similar to Ati Karshya in Ayurveda.
The treatment provided below intends to harmonize your body’s Pitta and Vata Doshas. General lifestyle suggestions include
• Yoga, pranayama, and meditation exercises
• Maintainance of a regular sleep schedule
• Avoidance of excessive stress and approach to detoxification
• Warm oil body massages or Abhyangam to stimulate blood flow, to benefit muscles, eliminate toxins and relax muscles
• Self-massage forms include Abhyangam, Snigdha, or Udwarthanam
▪︎ Consuming milk and dairy products (Do visit a doctor for a prescribed plan)
▪︎ Panchakarma therapies
• Panchakarma offers relief from numerous bodily ailments and also balances bodily equilibrium
☆ Beneficial Herbs
▪︎ Lemon Balm or Melissa Officinalis
• Blocks the binding of TSH that causes hyperthyroidism
• Also used to treat tachycardia, insomnia, and hyperactivity, which are symptoms of Hyperthyroidism.
▪︎ Shankhapushpi or Convolvulus Pluricaulis
• Contains liver enzymes which cure symptoms
▪︎ Amla or EmblicaOfficinalis
• It particularly controls both T3 and T4 hormonal levels
▪︎ Fenugreek or Trigonella Graceum
• Particularly effective in reducing the T3 hormonal levels
▪︎ Stone Apple or Aegle Marmelos
• Balances the hormones that are released from the thyroid glands
▪︎ Tulsi or Ocimum sanctum
• The juice of Tulsi leaves especially reduces T4 levels
▪︎ Shirish or Moringa Oleifera
• Helpful in balancing both T3 and T4 levels
For more informative articles on health related issues ,please visit our website www.santripty.com and also feel free to consult.