Oligospermia is a male fertility issue characterized by a low sperm count and is a common finding in male infertility. Often semen with a decreased sperm concentration may also show significant abnormalities in sperm morphology and motility.
Oligospermia is defined as less number of ejaculate of the male. Among in futile couple, 40% are primarily due to the infertility of the male partner, While in 20% of these cases it is a combination of both male and female factors associated which lead to infertility.Oligospermia is the most prevalent cause of male infertility.
A healthy sperm count is often necessary for fertility. WHO classifies sperm counts at or above 15 million sperm per mililitre (mL) of semen s average. Anything below that is considered low and in diagnosed as oligospermia-
• Mild Oligospermia : 10-15 million sperm/ml
• Moderate Oligospermia: 5-10 million sperm/ml
• Severe Oligospermia : 0-5 million sperm/ml
The main sign of low sperm count is the inability to conceive a child. There might be no other obvious sign or symptoms.In some men, an underlying problem such as an inherited chromosomal abnormality, a hormonal imbalance, dilated testicular veins or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm may cause signs and symptoms.
Low sperm count symptoms might include-
• Problems with sexual function – for example, low sex drive or difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile disfunction)
• Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area
• Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosome or hormone abnormality
• Thick discharge
• Enlarged or swollen veins in the scrotum
• If problem is due to virus, then burning micturition
• Hormonal imbalances
• Ejaculatory problems
• Undescended testicles
• Anti-sperm antibodies
• Chromosomal abnormalities
• Obstructions in the sperm carrying tubes.
• Trauma or injury like vasectomy, hernia repair,scrotal surgeries,Prostate surgeries etc.
• Certain medications like antifungal, antibiotic, ulcer medicines, Chemotherapy drugs, testosterone replacement therapy etc.
• Environmental factors such as exposure to chemicals, radiation and heavy metals.
• Smoking tobacco
• Drinking alcohol
• Being overweight
• Being severely depressed or stressed
• Having certain past or present infections
• Overheating the testicles
• Having family history of fertility disorder
• Undergoing cancer treatment
• Having a prior vasectomy or major abdominal or pelvic surgery
Infertility caused by low sperm count can be stressful for both the partners.Complication can incude –
• Expensive and involved assisted reproductive techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF)
• Stress related to the inability to have a child
• Surgery or other treatments for an underlying cause of low sperm count.
• Semen analysis
• Scrotal ultrasound
• Hormone testing
• Post ejaculation urine analysis
• Testicular biopsy
• Anti-sperm antibody tests
• Transrectal ultrasound
• Surgery for problems such as varicocele
• Treating infections with antibiotics
• Treatment for sexual intercourse problems such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation
• Hormone treatments
• Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as IUI or IVF
Ayurvedic Perspective –
As per Ayurveda, Oligospermia can be correlated with Shukra kshaya. Vajikaran therapy is recommended in Ayurveda for men who are above 16 and below 70 to maintain optimum sexual activity and healthy semen.
Panchakarma treatment –
This treatment has shown to bring the deranged doshas back on track.eg. –
• Basti –
• Shodana (Vaman & Virechana)
Beneficial Herbs –
• Shatavari –
• Brahmi –
• Guduchi –
• Paschimottanasan –
• Bhujangasana –
• Sarvangasana –
• Praivritta trikonasana –
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