Miosis is a medical term for excessive constriction of the pupils, leading to their abnormally small size.The condition is also called pupillary miosis. Pupils are the black circles in the middle of your eyes. With miosis, the muscles of your iris (the colored part of your eye) tighten around your pupil.
Common symptoms of miosis includes –
• Pinpoint pupils
• Sensitivity to light
• Blurred vision
• Sometimes eye discomfort
• Drug Use
▪︎ Opioids: Opioid medications, such as morphine and heroin, are known to cause miosis.
▪︎ Prescription Medications: Certain medications like pilocarpine, used to treat glaucoma, can lead to this disease.
• Neurological Conditions
▪︎ Brain Injury: Trauma or injury to the brain can disrupt the normal pupillary reflex, causing this problem.
▪︎ Brainstem Lesions: Damage to the brainstem can affect the nerve pathways that control pupil size.
• Neurological Disorders
▪︎ Horner’s Syndrome: This disorder disrupts the sympathetic nerve pathway and can lead to miosis on one side of the face.
▪︎ Adie’s Tonic Pupil: A neurological disorder where one pupil becomes larger than the other and reacts slowly to light.
• Environmental Factors
▪︎ Bright Light: Exposure to bright light can cause the pupils to constrict, resulting in temporary miosis.
• Medical Conditions
▪︎ Inflammation: Conditions like uveitis (inflammation of the eye) can cause miosis.
▪︎ Ciliary Spasm: Spasm of the ciliary muscle can lead to miosis due to increased tension in the iris.
• Medication Use: Individuals taking opioids or specific eye medications are at a higher risk of experiencing this disease.
• Neurological Issues: People with a history of brain injuries or neurological disorders may be more prone to such condition.
• Physiological Miosis: Normal, healthy constriction of pupils in response to light or other stimuli.
• Pathological Miosis: Abnormal pupillary constriction due to medical conditions, medications, or neurological issues.
• Physical Examination: An eye doctor will assess pupil size, light response, and eye movements.
• Medical History: Understanding medication use, neurological history, and any recent trauma helps in diagnosing the underlying cause.
• Special Tests: Additional tests like imaging (MRI/CT scans) may be ordered to investigate brain-related causes.
• Addressing Underlying Cause: Treating the root cause, such as discontinuing medications or managing neurological disorders, can alleviate the problem.
• Medication Adjustment: Adjusting medication dosages or switching to alternatives can help reduce this condition.
• Management: Patients with physiological miosis may not require treatment, while those with pathological miosis need tailored interventions.
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