Ageing results from the impact of the accumulation of a wide variety of molecular and cellular damage over time. This leads to a gradual decrease in physical and mental capacity, a growing risk of disease and ultimately death.
Older age is also characterized by the emergence of several complex health states commonly called geriatric syndromes. They are often the consequence of multiple underlying factors and include frailty, urinary incontinence, falls, delirium and pressure ulcers.
Common conditions in older age include hearing loss, cataracts and refractive errors, back and neck pain and osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, depression and dementia. As people age, they are more likely to experience several conditions at the same time.
• Biological Ageing
This is the type of ageing most people are familiar with, since it refers to the various ways the human body naturally changes over time. For instance, immune system changes associated with age make it more difficult to fight infections and viruses. Biological ageing can also affect digestion, the spine, joints, vital organs, and other parts that help with movement and daily functioning. Hearing, vision, and oral health can also be affected by biological issues. Biological ageing is something that happens to everyone.
• Psychological Ageing
This type of ageing is largely related to behavior, but it also includes general perception and reactions to the immediate environment. Psychological ageing is related to changes in the brain and, in some cases, underlying psychological issues or changes in cognitive capabilities that could affect problem-solving, emotions, and subjective reactions to situations.
• Social Ageing
Social aging refers to how social habits and behaviors change over time. It also includes the individual’s role in relation to society as a whole and people in his or her age group. This type of aging is measured, in part, by how an individual is expected to behave in interactions with others based on social norms.
Healthy Ageing –
Ageing cannot be avoided. With that said, there are several things you can do to mitigate the environmental factors that influence it
• Eat well. Added sugar, salt, and saturated fat wreak havoc on the body, increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. To avoid these aging-related concerns, increase your intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean meat and fish.
• Read labels. If you buy packaged foods for convenience, check the label to ensure that you limit your sodium intake to under 1,500 milligrams (mg) per day, your sugar intake to around 25 mg per day, and your saturated fat intake to less than 10% of your daily calories.
• Stop smoking. Quitting cigarettes improves circulation and blood pressure while drastically reducing your risk of cancer. Though it often takes multiple quit attempts to finally kick the habit, there are effective cessation aids that can help.
• Exercise. Most adults do not meet the recommended exercise requirements for good health (roughly 30 minutes of moderate to strenuous exercise 5 days per week). Even so, 15 minutes of moderate activity per day can improve longevity compared to no exercise.
• Socialize. Socialization keeps us psychologically engaged and may help influence longevity as well. Maintain good, healthy relationships with others. Stay connected to the ones you love, and make it a point to meet new people.
• Get ample sleep. Chronic sleep deprivation is linked to poorer health and shorter life spans. By improving your sleep hygiene and getting around 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night, you may not only feel better but live longer.
• Reduce stress. Chronic stress and anxiety can be damaging to your body as they trigger the release of an inflammatory stress hormone called cortisol. Learning to control stress with relaxation techniques and mind-body therapies may help alleviate the indirect inflammatory pressure placed on cells.
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