Monkeypox virus causes monkeypox is an infectious disease that can occur in certain animals including humans. The time from exposure to onset of symptom is around 10 days. The duration of symptoms is typically 2-5 weeks.
Monkeypox virus’s way of spreading is by handling bushmeat, an animal bite or scratch, body fluids, contaminated objects or close contact with an infected person.
Epidemiology of Monkeypox virus –
Central and West Africa is mostly affected by this disease. Certain rodents in Africa are believed for virus circulation.
Is it contagious?
The infected person is not contagious during the incubation period.
However, human cases can be contagious as soon as the symptoms develop.
The person is contagious untill all scabs form the pox lesions full off.Consequently, the person is usually contagious for about four to five weeks.
Signs & Symptoms of Monkeypox virus-
Monkeypox virus is similar to smallbox, although it is often milder. Sign and symptoms monkeypox virus in includes-
• Shortness of breath
• Rash with papules and pustules primarily on face and chest along with mucus membranes inside the nose and mouth.
These skin and mucus membrane pox lesions can ulcerate, crust over and then begin to heal in about 14-21 days.
Some pox lesions may become necrotic and destroy sebaceous glands, leaving a depression or pox scar that, with monkeypox, may gradually become his pronounced over a few years.
Causes of Monkeypox virus –
An orthopoxvirus named Monkeypox causes monkeypox.
The viruses are oval brick shaped viruses that have a lipoprotein layer with tubules or filaments that cover the viral DNA.
There are many members of this viral genus, including such species as variola(Smallpox), cowpox, buffalopox, camelpox, rabbitpox and others.
Most species infect a particular animal species but occasionally may infect other mammals.
Mode of transmission of monkeypox virus –
• Transmission of monkeypox is usually by direct contact with infected animals or possibly by eating poorly cooked meat from an infected rodent or monkey.
• Cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the infected animals are a likely source of transmission to humans, especially when the human skin is broken due to bites, scratches or other trauma are a likely source of virus transmission.
Difference in smallpox and monkeypox virus symptoms-
• The toxemia that was seen with smallpox is not seen with monkeypox.
• Monkeypox has far less mortality than smallpox had.
This virus is endemic in rodent populations in Africa. Smallpox did not infect any endemic animal population and only infect humans.
Riskfactor of monkeypox virus-
Monkeypox virus is a relatively uncommon disease.Risk factors includes –
• through animal bites and scratches from infected animals( mainly african rodents or monkeys)
• through rodents that have been in contact with African animals infected with the virus.
• through the direct physical contact with the patient to caregivers.
Diagnosis of monkeypox virus –
• PCR ( polymerase chain reaction)
• ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
• Western blotting test
These tests are based on detecting antigenic structures (usually from skin or pox samples or occasionally serum) specific to either monkeypox virus or immunoglobulin that reacts with the virus.
Definitive diagnosis of this viral disease, outside of Africa, and especially in developed countries is needed to be more precised where monkeypox is not endemic.
Treatment of monkeypox virus –
The following treatment options are available for this virus-
1• A smallpox vaccination should be administered within two weeks of exposure to monkeypox.
2• Cidofovir, an antiviral drug, is suggested For patients with severe, life-threatening symptoms
For severe symptoms, supportive measures such as mechanical ventilation may rarely be needed.
Preventive measures to be taken for protection against monkeypox virus –
The following preventive measures can be taken to protect yourself and your loved ones from the monkeypox virus –
1• Avoiding eating or touching animals known to acquire the virus.
2• Patient should isolate themselves physically untill all the pox lesions have healed.
3• People who are caring for these patients should use barriers like facemasks to avoid any direct or droplet contact.
4• Caregivers should take a smallpox vaccination.
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