Cervical polyps are small, elongated tumors that grow on the cervix. The cervix is the narrow canal at the bottom of the uterus that extends into the vagina. The cervix connects the uterine cavity and the upper portion of the vagina.It acts as the passageway for sperm to fertilize an egg, which could result in pregnancy.
Polyps are fragile structures that grow from stalks rooted on the surface of the cervix or inside of the cervical canal. If someone has polyps, usually only one polyp is present and two or three at most.
They are most common in women in their 40s and 50s who have had more than one child.Polyps almost never occur in young women before the start of menstruation. Polyps are also common during pregnancy. This may occur due to an increase in the hormone estrogen.
Cervical polyps are usually benign, or not cancerous and cervical cancer rarely arises from them. Most cervical cancers are due to the human papilloma virus (HPV), which is also the cause of genital warts.
Polyps can vary in color from a gray, almost white color to bright red or purple.They can grow to different sizes and look like bulbs growing on stems.
Two different types of polyp can develop on the cervix –
• Ectocervical polyps-
Postmenopausal women are more likely to have these polyps, which grow on the cells in the outer surface layer of the cervix.
• Endocervical polyps-
More common overall, endocervical polyps grow from cervical glands inside the cervical canal. This type of polyp is more likely to affect women who are premenopausal.
Cervical polyps are often asymptomatic, identified only via routine cervical screening.
If symptomatic, the most common clinical feature is that of abnormal vaginal bleeding. This can be in the form of menorrhagia, or intermenstrual, post-coital or post-menopausal bleeding.
Polyps can also cause increased vaginal discharge.Rarely, they grow large enough to block the cervical canal, causing infertility
On speculum examination, cervical polyps are usually visible as polypoid growths projecting through the external os.
It is not fully understood why cervical polyps occur. Their formation may be linked to –
• High estrogen levels –
Estrogen levels naturally fluctuate throughout a women’s life. Your estrogen levels will be highest during childbearing years, during any pregnancies and in the months leading up to menopause.
• Inflammation –
An inflamed cervix appears red, irritated or eroded. Some of the known cause of cervical inflammation include –
• bacterial infection
• HPV infection
• yeast infections
• hormonal changes
• Clogged blood vessels
The diagnosis of most cervical polyps takes place during routine pelvic examinations or Pap smear tests.
If polyps are present, a doctor may wish to remove them. The doctor will also take tissue samples, called biopsies, of the polyps to check whether they are cancerous or benign.
Most cervical polyps are benign and possible to remove surgically.
Treatment may not be necessary if the polyps are not causing any symptoms or discomfort, but a doctor will continue to monitor the polyps closely.
There are different methods for surgically removing polyps.
There might involve a doctor –
• using polyp forceps to take hold of the polyp and pull it out gently
• tying surgical string around the polyp before cutting it out
• twisting the polyp at its base and pulling it off
The doctor will then use liquid nitrogen, laser surgery or electrocautery ablation to destroy the base of the polyp.
After removal of a polyp, the individual may experience some bleeding and cramping. Over-the- counter pain relievers should reduce the discomfort.
Cervical polyp can be co related to Karnini Yonivyapad in Ayurveda.
• Kanchnar gugglu
• Vriddhivadhika vati
• Shila sindoor
• Tamra Bhasm
• Kahrava pisti
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