Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease(CKD) is a slow and progressive loss of kidney function over a period of several years. Eventually,a person will develop permanent kidney failure.
Chronic kidney disease(CKD), also known as chronic renal failure, chronic renal disease, or chronic kidney failure.It often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced. It is not unusual for people to realise they have chronic kidney failure only when their kidney function is down to 25% of normal.
As kidney failure advances and the organ’s function is severely impaired, dangerous levels of waste and fluid can rapidly build up in the body. Treatment is aimed at stopping or slowing down the progression of the disease – this is usually done by controlling its underlying cause.
Chronic kidney failure, as opposed to acute kidney failure, is a slow and gradually progressive disease. Even if one kidney stops functioning, the other can carry out normal functions.It is not usually visible until the disease is fairly well advanced and the condition has become severe that signs and symptoms are noticeable, by which time most of the damage is irreversible.
It is important that people who are at high risk of developing kidney disease have their kidney functions regularly checked. Early detection can significantly help prevent serious kidney damage.
The most common sign and symptoms of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) include-
• decrease urine output
• dark urine
• blood in urine
• more frequent urination, especially at night
• edema – swollen feet, hands and ankles (face if edema is severe)
• decreased mental alertness
• fatigue (tiredness)
• male inability to get or maintain an erection
• muscle cramps
• protein is Urine
• muscle twitches
• pain on the side or mid to lower back
• shortness of breath
• sudden change in bodyweight
• unexplained headaches
• loss of appetite
• itchy skin, can become persistent
Kidneys carry out the complex system of filtration in our bodies- excess waste and fluid material are removed from the blood and excreted from the body.
Kidneys can eliminate most waste materials that our body produces. However, if the blood flow to the kidneys is affected, they are not working properly because of damage or disease, or if urine outflow in obstructed, problems can occur.
Diseases and conditions that cause chronic kidney disease include-
• Type 1 or type 2 diabetes
• High blood pressure
• Glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units(glomeruli)
• Interstitial nephritis, an inflammation of the kidney’s tubules and surrounding structures
• Recurrent kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis
• Vesicoureteral reflux, a condition that causes urine to back up into your kidneys
• Polycystic kidney disease
• Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones and some cancers
• Kidney artery stenosis
• Fetal developmental problem
• Systemic lupus erythematosus
• Malaria and yellow fever
• Some medications like NSAIDs
• Illegal substance abuse
• Injury to kidney
Risk factors –
Factors that way increase your risk of CKD include-
• Family history of kidney disease
• Abnormal kidney structure
• Heart and blood vessel disease
• High blood pressure
• Being African-American, Native American or Asian-American
Changes in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can assess how advanced the kidney disease is. Kidney disease stages are classified as follows-
GFR rate is normal. However, the evidence of kidney disease has been detected.
GFR rate is lower than 90 ml and evidence of kidney disease has been detected.
GFR rate is lower than 60 ml, regardless of whether evidence of kidney disease has been detected.
GFR rate is lower than 30 mI, regardless of whether evidence of kidney disease has been detected.
GFR rate is lower then 15 mI. Renal failure has occured.
The majority of patients with chronic kidney disease rarely progress beyond Stage 2. Still it is important for kidney disease to be diagnosed and treated early for serious damage to be prevented.
• Central nervous system damage
• Fluid retention
• Pericarditis, when the sac like membrane around the heart becomes in- flamed
• Osteomalacia, when bones become weak and break easily
• Weak immune system
• Hyperkalaemia, when blood potassium levels rise, possibly resulting in heart damage
• Stomach ulcers
• Dry skin or skin color changes
• Male erectile dysfunction
• Lower sex drive
• Blood test
• Urine test
• Kidney scans such as MRI, CT scan or USG
• Kidney biopsy
• Chest X-ray
• Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Depending on the underlying cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. Often, though,CKD has no cure. Treatment usually consists of measures to help control signs and symptoms, reduce complicationsand slow progression of the disease.
•Treating complications –
Kidney disease complications can be controlled to make you more comfortable. Treatments may include-
°High blood pressure medications – such as ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. A water pill (diuretic) and a low salt diet is also recommended with it.
° Medications to lower cholestrol levels
° Medications to treat anaemia
° Medications to relieve swelling
° Medications to protect your bones
° A lower protein diet to minimize waste products in your blood
• Treatment for end-stage kidney disease –
. If your kidneys can’t keep up with waste and fluid clearance on their own and you develop complete or near complete kidney failure, you have end- stage kidney disease.At that point you need only two types of treatment which includes-
° Kidney transplant
Chronic kidney disease may be comparable to Mutravhasrotas vikara Mutrakshaya ,Mutrasada and Mutraghata in Ayurveda.Mutrakshaya occurs in rough and exhausted (Ruksha and klanta) person,When vitiated pitta and vata located in the urinary bladder causes decreased urine production with burning sensation and pain. Whereas is Mutrasada pitta or kapha vitation in the bladder leads to yellow color urine with burning or white slimy urine production.Mutraghata stands for suppression of urine output.
Beneficial Herbs –
• Varuna –
• Bhumi Amalaki-
• Kasani –
• Trina panchmoola Kwatha
• Punanava Mandur
• Kamdugdha ras
• Varunadi kwatha
• Gokshura Churna
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