Typhoid | Enteric Fever
Typhoid | Enteric fever is acute systemic infectious illness caused by salmonella typhi, usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water . Symptoms are often non – specific and clinically non – distinguishable from other febrile illness. It occurs predominantly in association with poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. It is a significant public health issue in developing countries especially for children. It’s incubation period is 1-2 weeks.
• Fever that starts from low grade and increases daily to a high of 104.9°F
• Weakness and fatigue
• Muscle aches
• Dry cough
• Loss of appetite and weight loss
• Stomach pain
• Diarrhoea or constipation
• Swollen stomach
• In serious condition, patient becomes delirious
• Exahausted fully
• Faecal – oral transmission route –
Most of people get it while travelling to such typhoid prone area. Salmonella typhi is passed in the faeces and sometimes in the urine of infected people. If you eat food that has been handled by someone who has typhoid fever and who hasn’t washed hands carefully after using the toilet ,you can become infected.
In developing countries people get infected by drinking contaminated water.
The bacteria may spread through contaminated food and through direct contact of someone who is infected.
• Typhoid carriers –
There are some people also who recover from the sign and symptoms of typhoid fever but they still having that bacteria , known as chronic carriers .Those carriers shed the bacteria in their faeces and are capable of infecting others.
Risk Factors –
• People who work in or travel to areas where typhoid is established.
• People who work as clinical microbiologist.
• People having close contact with typhoid infected person.
• Drinking water polluted by sewage.
Intestinal bleeding or holes in the intestine are most serious complication. They usually develop in the 3rd week of illness .Due to the holes created in Intestine ,contents of intestine leak into the stomach and can cause severe stomach pain , nausea , vomitting and sepsis .
• Safe drinking water
• Improvement in sanitation
• Adequate medical care
• Avoid raw fruits and vegetables in typhoid prone areas ,prefer hot foods there.
• While traveling to typhoid prone places single shot of typhoid vaccine should be taken .
• Complete blood check
• Widal Test
Antibiotic therapy – Commonly used antibiotics for typhoid fever are Ciprofloxacin , ofloxacin , Azithromycin , Cefotriaxone etc.
Ayurvedic Perspective –
According to Ayurveda typhoid | Enteric fever is known as Aantrik jwara.In Ayurveda disturbance to the regulation of body temperature is called jwara .Fever relates to a situation of diminished heat inside the gastrointestinal tract and a high peripheral temperature.
• Shodhan chikitsa –
Main treatment procedure for jwara is Langhana. Langhana typically means upvaas ( fasting )which leads to a state of reduced nourishment of body called Apatarpana .The therapy aims at creating a balance between the dhatus and Doshas , brings lightening to the body . Because of fasting ,vata and agni becomes aggravated and leads to catabolic state that helps in balancing of vitiated Doshas in the body. This helps to provide relief from the accumulated kapha and mala’s , the root cause of typhoid fever.
• Some effective herbs –
• Bilwaphal –
• Jatamansi –
• Haritaki –
• Guduchi –
• Some medications –
• Sudarshan churna
• Tribhuvan Kirti ras
• Sanjivani vati
• Giloy sat
• Jaimangal ras
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