Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder characterized by recurring episodes of vertigo. It is caused by the displacement of tiny calcium crystals, known as canaliths, within the inner ear. BPPV is generally not a serious condition but can significantly affect a person’s quality of life.
The primary symptom of BPPV is a spinning sensation or vertigo triggered by certain head movements.
Other common symptoms include dizziness, unsteadiness, nausea, and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements).
These symptoms typically last for a few seconds to a few minutes and can be triggered by changes in position, such as rolling over in bed or tilting the head backward.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV) occurs when the canaliths within the inner ear, specifically the semicircular canals, become dislodged and migrate into other parts of the ear. The exact cause of this displacement is often unknown, although it can be associated with head injuries, ear surgery, viral infections, or degenerative changes in the inner ear due to aging.
BPPV can be classified based on the affected semicircular canal.
The most common type is posterior canal BPPV, followed by anterior canal and horizontal canal BPPV. Each type produces distinct symptoms and requires specific treatment approaches.
Risk Factors –
Several factors may increase the risk of developing BPPV. These includes
• Advancing age
• History of head trauma
• Inner ear disorders
• Prolonged bed rest
• Certain medical conditions such as migraine and Meniere’s disease.
Although BPPV itself is not considered a serious condition, it can lead to complications. The recurrent episodes of vertigo can cause –
• Fear of falling
• Reduced mobility
• Impact on daily activities.
Furthermore, individuals with BPPV may be more prone to accidents or injuries during episodes of vertigo.
Diagnosing BPPV typically involves a comprehensive medical history review and a physical examination, including a neurological assessment and specific positional tests. The Dix-Hallpike and Roll maneuvers are commonly performed to induce symptoms and observe nystagmus. Additional tests, such as an audiogram or imaging studies, may be recommended to rule out other causes of dizziness.
The treatment of BPPV aims to alleviate symptoms by repositioning the displaced canaliths within the inner ear. This can be achieved through a series of canalith repositioning maneuvers, such as the Epley maneuver, Semont maneuver, or Brandt-Daroff exercises. These maneuvers help move the canaliths back to their original position, reducing or eliminating vertigo episodes. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to alleviate associated symptoms.
Ayurvedic Perspective –
- Vata, pitta and kapha dosha move through all channels of circulation. Due to the subtle nature of vata it impels the remaining two doshas.
- The aggravated vyana vata having provoked these two doshas, exacerbated and fills up the empty channels and moves greatly inside them or by getting enveloped by the other doshas.
- The aggravated vata resides in the head and produces bhrama (vertigo).
Ayurvedic Treatment –
- Rasnasaptakam Kashayam
- Ashtavargam Kashayam
- Pathyashadagam Kashayam
- Gandharvahasthadi kashayam
- Vrihat Vatachinthamani Ras
- Vatagajankush Ras
- Lakshmi vilasa rasa
- Maha lakshmi vilasa rasa
- Sarivadi vati
For more informative articles on Ear diseases & other health related issues, please visit our website www.santripty.com and also YouTube channel https://youtube.com/@santripty and feel free to consult with our experienced team of doctors, get benefits and stay healthy.