There are four main types of rosacea –
• Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: Symptoms include skin discoloration, flushing, and visible blood vessels.
• Papulopustular rosacea: Symptoms include flushing, swelling, and breakouts that resemble acne.
• Phymatous rosacea: Symptoms include thickened, bumpy skin.
• Ocular rosacea: Symptoms include eye redness and irritation and swollen eyelids.
Sign & Symptoms –
Signs and symptoms of rosacea include –
• Facial blushing or flushing.
Rosacea can cause a persistent blushing or flushing in the central part of your face. This sign of the condition may be difficult to see on brown and Black skin.
• Visible veins.
Small blood vessels of your nose and cheeks break and become visible (spider veins).
• Swollen bumps.
Many people with rosacea also develop pimples on their face that resemble acne. These bumps sometimes contain pus.
• Burning sensation.
The skin of the affected area may feel hot and tender.
• Eye problems.
Many people with rosacea also experience dry, irritated, swollen eyes and eyelids. This is known as ocular rosacea. In some people, the eye symptoms precede the skin symptoms.
• Enlarged nose.
Over time, rosacea can thicken the skin on the nose, causing the nose to appear bulbous (rhinophyma). This occurs more often in men than in women.
The cause of rosacea has not been determined. It may be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. It is known that some things may make your rosacea symptoms worse. These include –
• eating spicy foods
• eating items that contain the compound cinnamaldehyde, such as cinnamon, chocolate, tomatoes, and citrus
• drinking hot coffee or tea
• having the intestinal bacteria Helicobacter pylori
• a skin mite called demodex and the bacterium it carries, Bacillus oleronius
• the presence of cathelicidin (a protein that protects the skin from infection)
Risk Factors –
Anyone can develop rosacea. But you may be more likely to develop it if you –
• Are female
• Have skin that burns easily in the sun
• Are over age 30
• Have a family history of rosacea
There is no clinical test for rosacea. A doctor can make a diagnosis after examining the person’s skin and asking about their symptoms and triggers. The presence of enlarged blood vessels will help the doctor distinguish it from other skin conditions.
There isn’t a cure for rosacea, but treatments can help you manage the redness, bumps, and other symptoms.
Your doctor may suggest these medicines –
• Brimonidine (Mirvaso), a gel that tightens blood vessels in the skin to get rid of some of your redness.
• Azelaic acid, a gel and foam that clears up bumps, swelling, and redness.
• Metronidazole (Flagyl) and doxycycline, antibiotics that kill bacteria on your skin and bring down redness and swelling.
• Isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, and others), an acne drug that clears up skin bumps. Don’t use it if you’re pregnant because it can cause serious birth defects.
• Ivermectin (Soolantra) and oxymetazoline are topicals that are used to treat rosacea.
It can take you a few weeks or months of using one of these medicines for your skin to improve.
Your doctor may also recommend some procedures to treat your rosacea, such as –
• Lasers that use intense light to get rid of blood vessels that have gotten bigger
• Dermabrasion, which sands off the top layer of skin
• Electrocautery, an electric current that zaps damaged blood vessels
Try to follow these tips every day to help fade the redness on your skin –
• Put on sunscreen.
Use one that’s a broad spectrum (blocks UVA and UVB rays) and SPF 30 or higher whenever you go outside. Also wear a wide-brimmed hat that covers your face.
• Use only gentle skin care products.
Avoid cleansers and creams that have alcohol, fragrance, witch hazel, and other harsh ingredients. After you wash your face, gently blot your skin dry with a soft cloth.
• Use a moisturizer.
It’s especially helpful in cold weather. Low temperature and wind can dry up your skin.
• Massage your face.
Gently rub your skin in a circular motion. Start in the middle of your face and work your way outward toward your ears.
• Cover up.
Put a green-tinted cover-up on your face to hide redness and broken blood vessels.
• Go indoors.
Get out of the heat and sun and cool off in an air-conditioned room.
• Care for your eyes.
If rosacea has made them red and irritated, use a watered-down baby shampoo or eyelid cleaner to gently clean your eyelids every day. Also put a warm compress on your eyes a few times a day.
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