Nephrotic syndrome is not a disease. It is a group of symptoms that can appear if your kidneys are not working right. The human body is well designed to hold the important and to excrete all wastes. Kidneys and large intestine do this job for trillions of cells. Between these two , the most important is kidney. It helps in making a great buffer system for whole society of cells ,but when kidneys fail to hold the proteins and start flushing them out with urine , condition named Nephrotic syndrome arises.
Small blood vessels in your kidney as a filter, clearing out waste and extra water from your blood. That waste and waste ,finally reaches in your bladder and leaves your body as urine.
When those blood vessels of our kidney’s filtering part called glomeruli ,get to damage ,too much protein slips through the filters into your urine ,which results the condition of Nephrotic Syndrome.
There are four main sign & symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome –
•Proteinuria – Too much protein in your urine.
• Hyperlipidemia – High level of fat and cholesterol in the blood.
• Oedema – Swelling of your legs ,feet and ankles and sometimes your hands and face.
• Hypoalbuminemia – Low level of albumin in the blood.
Nephrotic syndrome happens when you have a disease that damages the filters in your kidneys causes them to not work as they should. There are 2 types of causes which makes Nephrotic Syndrome to occur –
• Primary Cause –
Primary causes of Nephrotic Syndrome are diseases which affects kidneys only. The diseases for primary cause of Nephrotic Syndrome are –
1) Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) – This is the disease of adults .Scar in glomeruli is its main feature.
2) Minimal Change Disease – This is a developmental problem happens in children.
• Secondary Cause –
Secondary cause of Nephrotic Syndrome are diseases that affect the whole body , including the kidneys.
1) Diabetes in adults and children both.
2) Membranous Neuropathy
Risk Factors –
Factors that increases your risk of Nephrotic Syndrome are –
• Medical conditions that can damage your kidneys – such as diabetes , systemic lupus erythematous , Amyloidosis, reflux neuropathy and other kidney diseases increases the risk of Nephrotic Syndrome.
• Certain medications – like non steroidal Antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and drugs used to fight infections increases the risk of Nephrotic Syndrome.
• Blood clots
• High blood pressure
• High cholesterol and triglycerides
• Kidney failure
• Infections such as pneumonia and meningitis
• Poor nutrition ( Malnutrition)
• Urine Test
• Blood test including kidney function test (KFT)
• Kidney biopsy
Treatment for Nephrotic Syndrome involves treating any medical condition that might be causing your Nephrotic Syndrome. Medications that can be used are –
• Blood pressure medications –
These medications reduce blood pressure and the amount of proteins released in urine. E.g Benzepril, captopril, enalpril ,losartan ,valsartan etc.
• Water pills (Diuretics) –
These help to control swelling by increasing your kidneys fluid output. E.g. Frusemide(lasix), spironolactone(Aldactone).
• Cholesterol reducing medications –
e.g. Atorvastin ,lorastatin.
• Blood thinners ( Anticoagulants) –
E.g. Heparin, warfarin.
• Immune system suppressing medication –
Medications to control the immune system,such as corticosteroid, can decrease the inflammation.
Lifestyle changes –
• Choose lean source of protein like plant based protein in your diet.
• Reduce the amount of fat in your diet.
• Eat a low salt diet.
• Reduce the amount of liquid in your diet.
Ayurvedic Perspective –
There are all the three doshas involvement occurs in the pathophysiology of Nephrotic Syndrome –
The kidney is the seat of vata dosha, therefore local dosha is vata and this is important in Nephrotic Syndrome treatment. Vata dosha leads to destruction of tissues in glomeruli’s blood vessels and produces frothy urine. Inflammation and decay of tissue is the contribution of aggravated pitta dosha. The water retention credit goes to kapha dosha which ultimately leads of oedema symptom.
Beneficial Herbs –
• Shatavari – It has regenerative and restorative properties.
• Gokshukra – It is recommended to prevent infections and inflammation in the kidneys.
• Punarnava – It helps in proteinuria treatment and enhances the function of kidneys.
• Palash – It works as alkalizer.
• Varun – It works to rejuvenate kidneys.
• Shigru – It has antiinflammatory and restorative properties for kidneys.
Effective Medications –
• Trinapanchmool Kwath
• Gokshuradi gugglu
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