Kidney stones are hard pebble like objects that can form inside your kidneys. They are made up of mineral and salts. Kidney stones are also called as renal Calculi . This condition is known as nephrolithiasis .
These are small – usually between the size of a kernal of corn and a grain of salt. They can form when your body has too much of certain minerals and at the same time doesn’t have enough liquids. The stones can be brown or yellow and smooth or rough.
Symptoms may not start until your kidney stone goes on the move .It can move within your kidney ,into the tube also. Symptoms can be mild to severe which are as follows –
• Intense pain in your side or back.
• Pain in your groin and lower abdomen.
• Pain during micturition.
• Frequency and urge of urine increases.
• Urine colour becomes cloudy ,pink or brown and smells bad.
• Burning sensation in urination.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Fever and chills if there is infection.
Anyone can have kidney stones but men have double the chance of having kidney stones than women. Most of urinary stones develop in people between age of 20 to 49 yrs. Kidney stones may have following causes –
• Dehydration from reduced fluid intake or sternous exercise without adequate fluid replacement.
• Family history of having kidney stones.
• Diet rich in oxalates like spinach , chocolate , potato ,high salt intake , excessive sugar , excessive vitamin D supplements also causes kidney stones.
• Some medications like diuretics for blood pressure , calcium containing antacids , certain antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin also becomes cause of kidney stones.
• Medical conditions which causes Kidney stones are – diabetes ,high blood pressure , irritable bowel syndrome ,gout ,hypercalciuria , hyperparathyroidism.
Knowing the type of kidney stone you have helps to determine its cause and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones. There are 4 types of kidney stones –
1) Calcium stones –
Most of the kidney stones are made up of calcium ,in the form of calcium oxalate .There are two kinds of calcium stones –
• Calcium oxalate – It is a substance made daily by your liver .Some fruits and vegetables as well as nuts and chocolates have high quantity of oxalates in it. High dose of vitamin D ,intestinal bypass surgery and certain metabolic disorders also raise chances of oxalate stone formation.
• Calcium phosphate – This type of stones happen more often in people with metabolic conditions like renal tubular acidosis ,or with people who take medication to treat migraine or seizures.
2) Struvite stones –
These can form due to urinary tract infection where build up of ammonia leads to formation of these stones .These stones gets large very quickly.
3) Uric acid stones –
This type of stones form due to lose of too much fluid because of chronic diarrhoea ,eating high protein diet , having diabetes or metabolic disorders or family history of kidney stones.
4) Cystine stones –
This is a rare type of stone forms when when kidney leak too much of a specific amino acid called cystine into the urine.
• Urine test
• Blood test
• X- rays
• CT -scans
Treatment varies depending on the type of stone and causes.
1) Small stones with minimal symptoms –
• Drinking water – Drinking as much as 2-4 litres of water a day will keep your urine dilute and prevent stones formation and also clear your kidney from small stones.
• Pain Relievers – Passing a small stone can cause some pain ,for that you can have painkillers like Ibuprofen , Naproxen.
2) Large stones –
Kidney stones that are too large to pass on their own may require more extensive treatment such as –
• Parathyroid gland surgery
Ayurvedic Perspective –
In Ayurveda kidney stones are called as vrikashmari .They are formed when the aggravated kapha dosha reaches the urinary system and gets dried due to vata dosha.
Home Remedies –
• Drink lots of fluids like lemon juice with olive oil, buttermilk , coconut water including water
• Consume sugarcane juice
• Have kullatha daal
• Consume watermelon
Some super effective herbs –
Some medications –
• Punarnava Mandur
• Gokshuradi Gugglu
• Hajarulyahud bhasm
• Ashmarihar ras
• Shweta parpati
• Drink enough water.
• Eat on time.
• Don’t hold urge of urine.
• Cleanse the bowel by drinking warm water in the morning .
• Avoid tomatoes, brinjal, chikoo, bananas, dairy products, maida food, kaju – if you have stone history.
• Eat fruits with high water content.
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